Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection (genotype 3) has been described in developed countries as a cause of chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplantation (SOT), with the first cases reported in 2008. Immunosuppression seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic infections. The current gold standard for the diagnosis of HEV infection is the detection of HEV RNA in serum, stools, or both. In liver transplant recipients, HEV infection is considered an uncommon disease; however, a high index of suspicion is needed for patients with graft hepatitis of an unclear etiology. Liver transplant recipients seem more likely to develop chronic HEV after an acute infection, and there is accelerated progression to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. A decrease in immunosuppression is considered the first line of treatment, and pegylated interferon can be considered the second line of treatment for liver transplant recipients. At the present time, there are not enough data to recommend treatment with ribavirin for adult liver transplant recipients, although this has been tried in other SOT populations. Liver Transpl 20:15-24, 2014.
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