Hepatitis C virus

Pathogenesis and host immune response

Albert Ndzengue, Lewis Rowland Roberts

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a 40-70 nm diameter single-stranded RNA virus which encodes three structural and seven nonstructural peptides. These peptides play unique roles in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. The virus life cycle also requires the cooperation of host cell factors. The low proofreading capacity of the viral RNA polymerase ensures a high level of variation, leading to the selective development of new genotypes, subtypes, and quasispecies. This partly accounts for the ability of HCV to evade the immune system. HCV also causes immune dysfunction by impairing the signaling of immune cell receptors and the function and survival of both innate and specific immune cells. Immune-mediated acute liver injury in HCV is mostly subclinical and therefore underdiagnosed. Because the HCV-specific host immune response is delayed and blunted, HCV infection progresses to a chronic state in at least two-thirds of cases. Host factors such as IFNλ/IL28B gene polymorphisms also influence the outcome of acute HCV infection and the response of chronic HCV infection to interferon therapy. HCV exerts both direct and indirect carcinogenic effects that contribute to the development of HCC and B-cell lymphomas. The direct effects are from oncogenic effects of the viral peptides, while indirect effects result from the genotoxic influence of the reactive species-rich inflammatory milieu on cycling hepatocytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationViruses and Human Cancer
PublisherSpringer New York
Pages51-86
Number of pages36
Volume9781493908707
ISBN (Print)9781493908707, 1493908693, 9781493908691
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014

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Hepacivirus
Virus Diseases
Life Cycle Stages
Peptides
RNA Viruses
Viral RNA
B-Cell Lymphoma
Chronic Hepatitis C
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Interferons
Hepatocytes
Immune System
Genotype
Viruses
Liver
Wounds and Injuries
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Ndzengue, A., & Roberts, L. R. (2014). Hepatitis C virus: Pathogenesis and host immune response. In Viruses and Human Cancer (Vol. 9781493908707, pp. 51-86). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0870-7_4

Hepatitis C virus : Pathogenesis and host immune response. / Ndzengue, Albert; Roberts, Lewis Rowland.

Viruses and Human Cancer. Vol. 9781493908707 Springer New York, 2014. p. 51-86.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Ndzengue, A & Roberts, LR 2014, Hepatitis C virus: Pathogenesis and host immune response. in Viruses and Human Cancer. vol. 9781493908707, Springer New York, pp. 51-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0870-7_4
Ndzengue A, Roberts LR. Hepatitis C virus: Pathogenesis and host immune response. In Viruses and Human Cancer. Vol. 9781493908707. Springer New York. 2014. p. 51-86 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0870-7_4
Ndzengue, Albert ; Roberts, Lewis Rowland. / Hepatitis C virus : Pathogenesis and host immune response. Viruses and Human Cancer. Vol. 9781493908707 Springer New York, 2014. pp. 51-86
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