Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), increasingly referred to as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a well-recognized complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and contributes to considerable morbidity and mortality. In the Western Hemisphere, VOD, classified as a conditioning-related toxicity, is most commonly caused by stem cell transplantation. VOD has been described after all types of stem cell transplantation, irrespective of the stem cell source, type of conditioning therapy, or underlying disease. Recognition of this disease in the posttransplantation setting remains a challenge in the absence of specific diagnostic features because many other more common conditions can mimic it. Limited therapeutic or preventive strategies are currently available for the management of VOD. In this review, we provide a comprehensive account of the pathophysiology of this disease as we understand it today, risk factors for its development, and the current state of knowledge regarding preventive and therapeutic options.
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