Hemodynamics and Prognostic Impact of Concomitant Mitral Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis

Nahoko Kato, Ratnasari Padang, Cristina Pislaru, William R. Miranda, Mizuho Hoshina, Kentaro Shibayama, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Christopher G. Scott, Kevin L. Greason, Sorin V. Pislaru, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Patricia A. Pellikka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND: Mitral stenosis frequently coexists in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Mitral stenosis severity evaluation is challenging in the setting of combined aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis because of hemodynamic interactions between the 2 valve lesions. The impact of aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis on mitral stenosis is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effect of AVR on mitral stenosis hemodynamics and the clinical outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis with and without mitral stenosis. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated patients who underwent surgical AVR or transcatheter AVR for severe aortic stenosis from 2008 to 2015. Mean transmitral gradient by Doppler echocardiography ≥4 mm Hg was identified as mitral stenosis; patients were then stratified according to mitral valve area (MVA, by continuity equation) as >2.0 cm2 or ≤2.0 cm2. MVA before and after AVR in patients with mitral stenosis were evaluated. Clinical outcomes of patients with and without mitral stenosis were compared using 1:2 matching for age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, method of AVR (surgical AVR versus transcatheter AVR) and year of AVR. RESULTS: Of 190 patients with severe aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis (age 76±9 years, 42% men), 184 were matched with 362 with severe aortic stenosis without mitral stenosis. Among all mitral stenosis patients, the mean MVA increased after AVR by 0.26±0.59 cm2 (from 2.00±0.50 to 2.26±0.62 cm2, P<0.01). MVA increased in 105 (55%) and remained unchanged in 34 (18%). Indexed stroke volume ≤45 mL/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 2.40; 95% CI, 1.15-5.01; P=0.020) and transcatheter AVR (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.17-4.77; P=0.017) were independently associated with increase in MVA. Of 107 with significant mitral stenosis (MVA ≤2.0 cm2), MVA increased to >2.0 cm2 after AVR in 52 (49%, pseudo mitral stenosis) and remained ≤2.0 cm2 in 55 (51%, true mitral stenosis). During follow-up of median 2.9 (0.7-4.9) years, true mitral stenosis was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.20-2.94; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: MVA improved after AVR in nearly half of patients with severe aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis. MVA remained ≤2.0 cm2 (true mitral stenosis) in nearly half of patients with severe aortic stenosis and significant mitral stenosis; this was associated with worse survival among patients undergoing AVR for severe aortic stenosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1251-1260
Number of pages10
Issue number15
StatePublished - Oct 8 2019



  • aortic stenosis
  • aortic valve replacement
  • echocardiography
  • mitral stenosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this