Craniofacial dyskinesias encompass a variety of abnormal spontaneous craniofacial movements that often appear similar in morphology but are, in fact, of varied cause and nature. Although hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm are the two most common abnormal craniofacial movements, the clinician should be cognizant of other dyskinesias, particularly craniofacial dystonias, tremor, tic, chorea, and stereotypies. Most craniofacial dyskinesias respond favorably to injections of botulinum toxin type A or oral medications. Surgical treatment may be beneficial for refractory cases.
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