Over the last several decades, clinicians and clinical scientists have had growing interest in heart failure (HF) diagnosis and treatment. While HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) is a well-known clinical entity with several therapeutic strategies proven to be successful, HF with preserved ejection fraction is a more heterogenous syndrome with a prevalence that has increased in the last two decades, without effective therapeutic strategies. Great strides have been made in the detection of predisposing risk factors and pathological mechanisms; however, pharmacological therapies have shown to be ineffective in reducing cardiovascular mortality in the HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) population, opening the way to the necessity of developing new precision medicine based approaches. On the other hand, novel therapies and device interventions still require refinements with the ultimate goal of offering new clinically treatments for the HFpEF population. The aim of the present review is to provide insights into the HFpEF pathophysiology, diagnostic pathways and the latest updates on treatment strategies and their potential future application in routine clinical practice.
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine