Harnessing the power of onco-immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors

Karishma R. Rajani, Richard Geoffrey Vile

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses represent a diverse class of replication competent viruses that curtail tumor growth. These viruses, through their natural ability or through genetic modifications, can selectively replicate within tumor cells and induce cell death while leaving normal cells intact. Apart from the direct oncolytic activity, these viruses mediate tumor cell death via the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. The field of oncolytic viruses has seen substantial advancement with the progression of numerous oncolytic viruses in various phases of clinical trials. Tumors employ a plethora of mechanisms to establish growth and subsequently metastasize. These include evasion of immune surveillance by inducing up-regulation of checkpoint proteins which function to abrogate T cell effector functions. Currently, antibodies blocking checkpoint proteins such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) have been approved to treat cancer and shown to impart durable clinical responses. These antibodies typically need pre-existing active immune tumor microenvironment to establish durable clinical outcomes and not every patient responds to these therapies. This review provides an overview of published pre-clinical studies demonstrating superior therapeutic efficacy of combining oncolytic viruses with checkpoint blockade compared to monotherapies. These studies provide compelling evidence that oncolytic therapy can be potentiated by coupling it with checkpoint therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17
Pages (from-to)5889-5901
Number of pages13
JournalViruses
Volume7
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 13 2015

Fingerprint

Oncolytic Viruses
Immunotherapy
Cell Death
Neoplasms
CTLA-4 Antigen
Immune Evasion
Oncogenic Viruses
Blocking Antibodies
Tumor Microenvironment
Adaptive Immunity
Therapeutics
Virus Replication
Growth
Innate Immunity
Proteins
Up-Regulation
Clinical Trials
Viruses
T-Lymphocytes
Antibodies

Keywords

  • Anti-CTLA-4
  • Anti-PD-1
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immune-evasion
  • Immunotherapy
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
  • Oncoimmunotherapy
  • Oncolytic viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Harnessing the power of onco-immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. / Rajani, Karishma R.; Vile, Richard Geoffrey.

In: Viruses, Vol. 7, No. 11, 17, 13.11.2015, p. 5889-5901.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rajani, Karishma R. ; Vile, Richard Geoffrey. / Harnessing the power of onco-immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. In: Viruses. 2015 ; Vol. 7, No. 11. pp. 5889-5901.
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