Aims: The aim of this study was to identify risk variants and haplotypes that impair dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity and are, therefore, candidate risk variants for severe toxicity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. Methods: Plasma dihydrouracil/uracil (UH2/U) ratios were measured as a population marker for DPD activity in a total of 1382 subjects from 4 independent studies. Genotype and haplotype correlations with UH2/U ratios were assessed. Results: Significantly lower UH2/U ratios (panova < 2 × 10−16) were observed in carriers of the 4 well-studied 5-FU toxicity risk variants with mean differences (MD) of −43.7% for DPYD c.1905 + 1G > A (rs3918290), −46.0% for DPYD c.1679T > G (rs55886062), −37.1%, for DPYD c.2846A > T (rs67376798), and −13.2% for DPYD c.1129-5923C > G (rs75017182). An additional variant, DPYD c.496A > G (rs2297595), was also associated with lower UH2/U ratios (P <.0001, MD: −12.6%). A haplotype analysis was performed for variants in linkage disequilibrium with c.496A > G, which consisted of the common variant c.85T > C (rs1801265) and the risk variant c.1129-5923C > G. Both haplotypes carrying c.496A > G were associated with decreased UH2/U ratios (H3, P =.003, MD: −9.6%; H5, P =.002, MD: −16.9%). A haplotype carrying only the variant c.85T > C (H2) was associated with elevated ratios (P =.004, MD: +8.6%). Conclusions: Based on our data, DPYD-c.496A > G is a strong candidate risk allele for 5-FU toxicity. Our data suggest that DPYD-c.85T > C might be protective; however, the deleterious impacts of the linked alleles c.496A > G and c.1129-5923C > G likely limit this effect in patients. The possible protective effect of c.85T > C and linkage disequilibrium with c.496A > G and c.1129-5923C > G may have hampered prior association studies and should be considered in future clinical studies.
- dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)