Gynecomastia: Pathophysiology, evaluation, and management

Ruth E. Johnson, M. Hassan Murad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

118 Scopus citations

Abstract

Gynecomastia, defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue, is usually caused by increased estrogen activity, decreased testosterone activity, or the use of numerous medications. Although a fairly common presentation in the primary care setting and mostly of benign etiology, it can cause patients considerable anxiety. The initial step is to rule out pseudogynecomastia by careful history taking and physical examination. A stepwise approach that includes imaging and laboratory testing to exclude neoplasms and endocrinopathies may facilitate costeffective diagnosis. If results of all studies are normal, idiopathic gynecomastia is diagnosed. The evidence in this area is mainly of observational nature and lower quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1010-1015
Number of pages6
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Volume84
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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