Greater early postprandial suppression of endogenous glucose production and higher initial glucose disappearance is achieved with fast-acting insulin aspart compared with insulin aspart

Ananda Basu, Thomas R. Pieber, Ann K. Hansen, Stefanie Sach-Friedl, Lars Erichsen, Rita Basu, Hanne Haahr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: To investigate the mechanisms behind the lower postprandial glucose (PPG) concentrations achieved with fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) than with insulin aspart (IAsp). Materials and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, 41 people with type 1 diabetes received identical subcutaneous single faster aspart and IAsp doses (individualized for each participant), together with a standardized mixed meal (including 75 g carbohydrate labelled with [1-13C] glucose). PPG turnover was determined by the triple-tracer meal method using continuous, variable [6-3H] glucose and [6,6-2H2] glucose infusion. Results: Insulin exposure within the first hour was 32% greater with faster aspart than with IAsp (treatment ratio faster aspart/IAsp 1.32 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.18;1.48]; P <.001), leading to a 0.59-mmol/L non-significantly smaller PPG increment at 1 hour (ΔPG1h; treatment difference faster aspart–IAsp −0.59 mmol/L [95% CI –1.19; 0.01]; P =.055). The trend towards reduced ΔPG1h with faster aspart was attributable to 12% greater suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP; treatment ratio 1.12 [95% CI 1.01; 1.25]; P =.040) and 23% higher glucose disappearance (1.23 [95% CI 1.05; 1.45]; P =.012) with faster aspart than with IAsp during the first hour. Suppression of free fatty acid levels during the first hour was 36% greater for faster aspart than for IAsp (1.36 [95% CI 1.01;1.88]; P =.042). Conclusions: The trend towards improved PPG control with faster aspart vs IAsp in this study was attributable to both greater early suppression of EGP and stimulation of glucose disappearance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1615-1622
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2018

Keywords

  • glucose metabolism
  • insulin therapy
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • type 1 diabetes
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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