Gonadotroph Pituitary Adenoma Causing Treatable Infertility and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in Female Patients: Neurosurgical, Endocrinologic, Gynecologic, and Reproductive Outcomes

Hirotaka Hasegawa, Cody L. Nesvick, Dana Erickson, Salomon Cohen Cohen, Yagiz U. Yolcu, Zaraq Khan, Aditya Raghunathan, Todd B. Nippoldt, John Atkinson, Jamie J. Van Gompel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Gonadotroph pituitary adenoma (Gn-PA) may rarely cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, leading to infertility in women, although this remains poorly described. Methods: We present a quantitative systematic review including 2 patients from our institutional and 48 from the literature with Gn-PA causing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome to thoroughly describe the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes from multidisciplinary aspects. Results: The patients had a mean age of 31.5 years and a mean follicle-stimulating hormone level of 14.4 IU/L. Estradiol level was high in 82% of patients, at >350 pg/mL. The mean maximal adenoma diameter was 22 mm, with a Knosp grade ≥3 in 10 patients. Abdominal surgery preceded adenoma resection in 24 patients (48%). Among 25 patients for whom extent of resection was recorded, total adenoma resection was achieved in 12. Through a mean follow-up of 25 months, adenoma recurrence was observed in 5 patients, who were treated with re-resection (n = 2), radiation (n = 2), and medical therapy followed by bilateral oophorectomy (n = 1). Medical therapies were partially effective or ineffective, and adenoma shrinkage did not follow; gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists were partially effective in 20% of patients (2/10), dopamine agonists in 44% (8/18), and somatostatin analogues in 50% (1/2). Four experienced swelling of tumor/ovaries after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists administration. Overall, chemical remission was obtained in 26 of 28 patients, normalization of ovaries in 25 of 27, and successful pregnancy in 12 of 14. Conclusions: Adenoma resection is the main treatment, leading to reduction in ovarian size and biochemical remission, with a high likelihood of subsequent spontaneous pregnancy. Increased awareness of this rare condition may help avoid unnecessary abdominal procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalWorld neurosurgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Gonadotroph adenoma
  • Infertility
  • Luteinizing hormone
  • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Transsphenoidal surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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