Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015

Gregory A. Roth, Catherine Johnson, Amanuel Abajobir, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Gebre Abyu, Muktar Ahmed, Baran Aksut, Tahiya Alam, Khurshid Alam, François Alla, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Stephen Amrock, Hossein Ansari, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Tesfay Mehari Atey, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ashish Awasthi, Amitava Banerjee & 151 others Aleksandra Barac, Till Bärnighausen, Lars Barregard, Neeraj Bedi, Ezra Belay Ketema, Derrick Bennett, Gebremedhin Berhe, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Shimelash Bitew, Jonathan Carapetis, Juan Jesus Carrero, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Carlos Andres Castañeda-Orjuela, Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas, Ferrán Catalá-López, Jee Young Choi, Hanne Christensen, Massimo Cirillo, Leslie T Jr. Cooper, Michael Criqui, David Cundiff, Albertino Damasceno, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Kairat Davletov, Samath Dharmaratne, Prabhakaran Dorairaj, Manisha Dubey, Rebecca Ehrenkranz, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Alireza Esteghamati, Talha Farid, Maryam Farvid, Valery Feigin, Eric L. Ding, Gerry Fowkes, Tsegaye Gebrehiwot, Richard Gillum, Audra Gold, Philimon Gona, Rajeev Gupta, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Tesfaye Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Graeme Hankey, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I. Hay, Masako Horino, Peter J. Hotez, Kathryn Jacobsen, Spencer James, Mehdi Javanbakht, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Denny John, Jost Jonas, Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Chante Karimkhani, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Khader, Abdur Khan, Young Ho Khang, Sahil Khera, Abdullah T. Khoja, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Dhaval Kolte, Soewarta Kosen, Kristopher J. Krohn, G. Anil Kumar, Gene Kwan, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Anders Larsson, Shai Linn, Alan Lopez, Paulo A. Lotufo, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohsen Mazidi, Toni Meier, Kidanu Gebremariam Meles, George Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Haftay Mezgebe, Ted Miller, Erkin Mirrakhimov, Shafiu Mohammed, Andrew E. Moran, Kamarul Imran Musa, Jagat Narula, Bruce Neal, Frida Ngalesoni, Grant Nguyen, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Mayowa Owolabi, George Patton, João Pedro, Dima Qato, Mostafa Qorbani, Kazem Rahimi, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Salman Rawaf, Antônio Ribeiro, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A. Salomon, Itamar Santos, Milena Santric Milicevic, Benn Sartorius, Aletta Schutte, Sadaf Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Min Jeong Shin, Mehdi Shishehbor, Hirbo Shore, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Eugene Sobngwi, Saverio Stranges, Soumya Swaminathan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Niguse Tadele Atnafu, Fisaha Tesfay, J. S. Thakur, Amanda Thrift, Roman Topor-Madry, Thomas Truelsen, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Olalekan Uthman, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Tolassa Wakayo, David Watkins, Robert Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, Ronny Westerman, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Charles Wolfe, Abdulhalik Workicho, Gelin Xu, Yuichiro Yano, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Theo Vos, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

446 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Mar 8 2017

Fingerprint

Cardiovascular Diseases
Mortality
Uncertainty
Health
Life Expectancy
Health Surveys
Information Systems
Myocardial Ischemia
Fertility
Registries
Autopsy
Software
Stroke
Weights and Measures
Incidence

Keywords

  • Cause of death
  • Epidemiology
  • Global health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015. / Roth, Gregory A.; Johnson, Catherine; Abajobir, Amanuel; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abyu, Gebre; Ahmed, Muktar; Aksut, Baran; Alam, Tahiya; Alam, Khurshid; Alla, François; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amrock, Stephen; Ansari, Hossein; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Bedi, Neeraj; Belay Ketema, Ezra; Bennett, Derrick; Berhe, Gebremedhin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Bitew, Shimelash; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andres; Castillo-Rivas, Jacqueline; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Choi, Jee Young; Christensen, Hanne; Cirillo, Massimo; Cooper, Leslie T Jr.; Criqui, Michael; Cundiff, David; Damasceno, Albertino; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davletov, Kairat; Dharmaratne, Samath; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Dubey, Manisha; Ehrenkranz, Rebecca; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farid, Talha; Farvid, Maryam; Feigin, Valery; Ding, Eric L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye; Gillum, Richard; Gold, Audra; Gona, Philimon; Gupta, Rajeev; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Tesfaye; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hankey, Graeme; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Horino, Masako; Hotez, Peter J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn; James, Spencer; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Khader, Yousef; Khan, Abdur; Khang, Young Ho; Khera, Sahil; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Daniel; Kolte, Dhaval; Kosen, Soewarta; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Larsson, Anders; Linn, Shai; Lopez, Alan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meier, Toni; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Mensah, George; Meretoja, Atte; Mezgebe, Haftay; Miller, Ted; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Moran, Andrew E.; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Narula, Jagat; Neal, Bruce; Ngalesoni, Frida; Nguyen, Grant; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Owolabi, Mayowa; Patton, George; Pedro, João; Qato, Dima; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi, Kazem; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rawaf, Salman; Ribeiro, Antônio; Safiri, Saeid; Salomon, Joshua A.; Santos, Itamar; Santric Milicevic, Milena; Sartorius, Benn; Schutte, Aletta; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shin, Min Jeong; Shishehbor, Mehdi; Shore, Hirbo; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Sobngwi, Eugene; Stranges, Saverio; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadele Atnafu, Niguse; Tesfay, Fisaha; Thakur, J. S.; Thrift, Amanda; Topor-Madry, Roman; Truelsen, Thomas; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Vlassov, Vasiliy; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wakayo, Tolassa; Watkins, David; Weintraub, Robert; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xu, Gelin; Yano, Yuichiro; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Vos, Theo; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher.

In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 08.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Roth, GA, Johnson, C, Abajobir, A, Abd-Allah, F, Abera, SF, Abyu, G, Ahmed, M, Aksut, B, Alam, T, Alam, K, Alla, F, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amrock, S, Ansari, H, Ärnlöv, J, Asayesh, H, Atey, TM, Avila-Burgos, L, Awasthi, A, Banerjee, A, Barac, A, Bärnighausen, T, Barregard, L, Bedi, N, Belay Ketema, E, Bennett, D, Berhe, G, Bhutta, Z, Bitew, S, Carapetis, J, Carrero, JJ, Malta, DC, Castañeda-Orjuela, CA, Castillo-Rivas, J, Catalá-López, F, Choi, JY, Christensen, H, Cirillo, M, Cooper, LTJ, Criqui, M, Cundiff, D, Damasceno, A, Dandona, L, Dandona, R, Davletov, K, Dharmaratne, S, Dorairaj, P, Dubey, M, Ehrenkranz, R, El Sayed Zaki, M, Faraon, EJA, Esteghamati, A, Farid, T, Farvid, M, Feigin, V, Ding, EL, Fowkes, G, Gebrehiwot, T, Gillum, R, Gold, A, Gona, P, Gupta, R, Habtewold, TD, Hafezi-Nejad, N, Hailu, T, Hailu, GB, Hankey, G, Hassen, HY, Abate, KH, Havmoeller, R, Hay, SI, Horino, M, Hotez, PJ, Jacobsen, K, James, S, Javanbakht, M, Jeemon, P, John, D, Jonas, J, Kalkonde, Y, Karimkhani, C, Kasaeian, A, Khader, Y, Khan, A, Khang, YH, Khera, S, Khoja, AT, Khubchandani, J, Kim, D, Kolte, D, Kosen, S, Krohn, KJ, Kumar, GA, Kwan, G, Lal, DK, Larsson, A, Linn, S, Lopez, A, Lotufo, PA, El Razek, HMA, Malekzadeh, R, Mazidi, M, Meier, T, Meles, KG, Mensah, G, Meretoja, A, Mezgebe, H, Miller, T, Mirrakhimov, E, Mohammed, S, Moran, AE, Musa, KI, Narula, J, Neal, B, Ngalesoni, F, Nguyen, G, Obermeyer, CM, Owolabi, M, Patton, G, Pedro, J, Qato, D, Qorbani, M, Rahimi, K, Rai, RK, Rawaf, S, Ribeiro, A, Safiri, S, Salomon, JA, Santos, I, Santric Milicevic, M, Sartorius, B, Schutte, A, Sepanlou, S, Shaikh, MA, Shin, MJ, Shishehbor, M, Shore, H, Silva, DAS, Sobngwi, E, Stranges, S, Swaminathan, S, Tabarés-Seisdedos, R, Tadele Atnafu, N, Tesfay, F, Thakur, JS, Thrift, A, Topor-Madry, R, Truelsen, T, Tyrovolas, S, Ukwaja, KN, Uthman, O, Vasankari, T, Vlassov, V, Vollset, SE, Wakayo, T, Watkins, D, Weintraub, R, Werdecker, A, Westerman, R, Wiysonge, CS, Wolfe, C, Workicho, A, Xu, G, Yano, Y, Yip, P, Yonemoto, N, Younis, M, Yu, C, Vos, T, Naghavi, M & Murray, C 2017, 'Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015', Journal of the American College of Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052
Roth, Gregory A. ; Johnson, Catherine ; Abajobir, Amanuel ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Abyu, Gebre ; Ahmed, Muktar ; Aksut, Baran ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alla, François ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amrock, Stephen ; Ansari, Hossein ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Banerjee, Amitava ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Barregard, Lars ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Belay Ketema, Ezra ; Bennett, Derrick ; Berhe, Gebremedhin ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Bitew, Shimelash ; Carapetis, Jonathan ; Carrero, Juan Jesus ; Malta, Deborah Carvalho ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andres ; Castillo-Rivas, Jacqueline ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Choi, Jee Young ; Christensen, Hanne ; Cirillo, Massimo ; Cooper, Leslie T Jr. ; Criqui, Michael ; Cundiff, David ; Damasceno, Albertino ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Davletov, Kairat ; Dharmaratne, Samath ; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran ; Dubey, Manisha ; Ehrenkranz, Rebecca ; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa ; Faraon, Emerito Jose A. ; Esteghamati, Alireza ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam ; Feigin, Valery ; Ding, Eric L. ; Fowkes, Gerry ; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye ; Gillum, Richard ; Gold, Audra ; Gona, Philimon ; Gupta, Rajeev ; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie ; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima ; Hailu, Tesfaye ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hankey, Graeme ; Hassen, Hamid Yimam ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon I. ; Horino, Masako ; Hotez, Peter J. ; Jacobsen, Kathryn ; James, Spencer ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Jeemon, Panniyammakal ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost ; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar ; Karimkhani, Chante ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khader, Yousef ; Khan, Abdur ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khera, Sahil ; Khoja, Abdullah T. ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Daniel ; Kolte, Dhaval ; Kosen, Soewarta ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G. Anil ; Kwan, Gene ; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar ; Larsson, Anders ; Linn, Shai ; Lopez, Alan ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mazidi, Mohsen ; Meier, Toni ; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam ; Mensah, George ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mezgebe, Haftay ; Miller, Ted ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Moran, Andrew E. ; Musa, Kamarul Imran ; Narula, Jagat ; Neal, Bruce ; Ngalesoni, Frida ; Nguyen, Grant ; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf ; Owolabi, Mayowa ; Patton, George ; Pedro, João ; Qato, Dima ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rahimi, Kazem ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Rawaf, Salman ; Ribeiro, Antônio ; Safiri, Saeid ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Santos, Itamar ; Santric Milicevic, Milena ; Sartorius, Benn ; Schutte, Aletta ; Sepanlou, Sadaf ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Shin, Min Jeong ; Shishehbor, Mehdi ; Shore, Hirbo ; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos ; Sobngwi, Eugene ; Stranges, Saverio ; Swaminathan, Soumya ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Tadele Atnafu, Niguse ; Tesfay, Fisaha ; Thakur, J. S. ; Thrift, Amanda ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Uthman, Olalekan ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Vlassov, Vasiliy ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wakayo, Tolassa ; Watkins, David ; Weintraub, Robert ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Westerman, Ronny ; Wiysonge, Charles Shey ; Wolfe, Charles ; Workicho, Abdulhalik ; Xu, Gelin ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Vos, Theo ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Murray, Christopher. / Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017.
@article{07a8364c57344727870e87b642a1e061,
title = "Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015",
abstract = "Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95{\%} uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95{\%} uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.",
keywords = "Cause of death, Epidemiology, Global health",
author = "Roth, {Gregory A.} and Catherine Johnson and Amanuel Abajobir and Foad Abd-Allah and Abera, {Semaw Ferede} and Gebre Abyu and Muktar Ahmed and Baran Aksut and Tahiya Alam and Khurshid Alam and Fran{\cc}ois Alla and Nelson Alvis-Guzman and Stephen Amrock and Hossein Ansari and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Hamid Asayesh and Atey, {Tesfay Mehari} and Leticia Avila-Burgos and Ashish Awasthi and Amitava Banerjee and Aleksandra Barac and Till B{\"a}rnighausen and Lars Barregard and Neeraj Bedi and {Belay Ketema}, Ezra and Derrick Bennett and Gebremedhin Berhe and Zulfiqar Bhutta and Shimelash Bitew and Jonathan Carapetis and Carrero, {Juan Jesus} and Malta, {Deborah Carvalho} and Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela, {Carlos Andres} and Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Choi, {Jee Young} and Hanne Christensen and Massimo Cirillo and Cooper, {Leslie T Jr.} and Michael Criqui and David Cundiff and Albertino Damasceno and Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona and Kairat Davletov and Samath Dharmaratne and Prabhakaran Dorairaj and Manisha Dubey and Rebecca Ehrenkranz and {El Sayed Zaki}, Maysaa and Faraon, {Emerito Jose A.} and Alireza Esteghamati and Talha Farid and Maryam Farvid and Valery Feigin and Ding, {Eric L.} and Gerry Fowkes and Tsegaye Gebrehiwot and Richard Gillum and Audra Gold and Philimon Gona and Rajeev Gupta and Habtewold, {Tesfa Dejenie} and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Tesfaye Hailu and Hailu, {Gessessew Bugssa} and Graeme Hankey and Hassen, {Hamid Yimam} and Abate, {Kalkidan Hassen} and Rasmus Havmoeller and Hay, {Simon I.} and Masako Horino and Hotez, {Peter J.} and Kathryn Jacobsen and Spencer James and Mehdi Javanbakht and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Denny John and Jost Jonas and Yogeshwar Kalkonde and Chante Karimkhani and Amir Kasaeian and Yousef Khader and Abdur Khan and Khang, {Young Ho} and Sahil Khera and Khoja, {Abdullah T.} and Jagdish Khubchandani and Daniel Kim and Dhaval Kolte and Soewarta Kosen and Krohn, {Kristopher J.} and Kumar, {G. Anil} and Gene Kwan and Lal, {Dharmesh Kumar} and Anders Larsson and Shai Linn and Alan Lopez and Lotufo, {Paulo A.} and {El Razek}, {Hassan Magdy Abd} and Reza Malekzadeh and Mohsen Mazidi and Toni Meier and Meles, {Kidanu Gebremariam} and George Mensah and Atte Meretoja and Haftay Mezgebe and Ted Miller and Erkin Mirrakhimov and Shafiu Mohammed and Moran, {Andrew E.} and Musa, {Kamarul Imran} and Jagat Narula and Bruce Neal and Frida Ngalesoni and Grant Nguyen and Obermeyer, {Carla Makhlouf} and Mayowa Owolabi and George Patton and Jo{\~a}o Pedro and Dima Qato and Mostafa Qorbani and Kazem Rahimi and Rai, {Rajesh Kumar} and Salman Rawaf and Ant{\^o}nio Ribeiro and Saeid Safiri and Salomon, {Joshua A.} and Itamar Santos and {Santric Milicevic}, Milena and Benn Sartorius and Aletta Schutte and Sadaf Sepanlou and Shaikh, {Masood Ali} and Shin, {Min Jeong} and Mehdi Shishehbor and Hirbo Shore and Silva, {Diego Augusto Santos} and Eugene Sobngwi and Saverio Stranges and Soumya Swaminathan and Rafael Tabar{\'e}s-Seisdedos and {Tadele Atnafu}, Niguse and Fisaha Tesfay and Thakur, {J. S.} and Amanda Thrift and Roman Topor-Madry and Thomas Truelsen and Stefanos Tyrovolas and Ukwaja, {Kingsley Nnanna} and Olalekan Uthman and Tommi Vasankari and Vasiliy Vlassov and Vollset, {Stein Emil} and Tolassa Wakayo and David Watkins and Robert Weintraub and Andrea Werdecker and Ronny Westerman and Wiysonge, {Charles Shey} and Charles Wolfe and Abdulhalik Workicho and Gelin Xu and Yuichiro Yano and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Mustafa Younis and Chuanhua Yu and Theo Vos and Mohsen Naghavi and Christopher Murray",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of the American College of Cardiology",
issn = "0735-1097",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015

AU - Roth, Gregory A.

AU - Johnson, Catherine

AU - Abajobir, Amanuel

AU - Abd-Allah, Foad

AU - Abera, Semaw Ferede

AU - Abyu, Gebre

AU - Ahmed, Muktar

AU - Aksut, Baran

AU - Alam, Tahiya

AU - Alam, Khurshid

AU - Alla, François

AU - Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

AU - Amrock, Stephen

AU - Ansari, Hossein

AU - Ärnlöv, Johan

AU - Asayesh, Hamid

AU - Atey, Tesfay Mehari

AU - Avila-Burgos, Leticia

AU - Awasthi, Ashish

AU - Banerjee, Amitava

AU - Barac, Aleksandra

AU - Bärnighausen, Till

AU - Barregard, Lars

AU - Bedi, Neeraj

AU - Belay Ketema, Ezra

AU - Bennett, Derrick

AU - Berhe, Gebremedhin

AU - Bhutta, Zulfiqar

AU - Bitew, Shimelash

AU - Carapetis, Jonathan

AU - Carrero, Juan Jesus

AU - Malta, Deborah Carvalho

AU - Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andres

AU - Castillo-Rivas, Jacqueline

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Choi, Jee Young

AU - Christensen, Hanne

AU - Cirillo, Massimo

AU - Cooper, Leslie T Jr.

AU - Criqui, Michael

AU - Cundiff, David

AU - Damasceno, Albertino

AU - Dandona, Lalit

AU - Dandona, Rakhi

AU - Davletov, Kairat

AU - Dharmaratne, Samath

AU - Dorairaj, Prabhakaran

AU - Dubey, Manisha

AU - Ehrenkranz, Rebecca

AU - El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa

AU - Faraon, Emerito Jose A.

AU - Esteghamati, Alireza

AU - Farid, Talha

AU - Farvid, Maryam

AU - Feigin, Valery

AU - Ding, Eric L.

AU - Fowkes, Gerry

AU - Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye

AU - Gillum, Richard

AU - Gold, Audra

AU - Gona, Philimon

AU - Gupta, Rajeev

AU - Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

AU - Hafezi-Nejad, Nima

AU - Hailu, Tesfaye

AU - Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa

AU - Hankey, Graeme

AU - Hassen, Hamid Yimam

AU - Abate, Kalkidan Hassen

AU - Havmoeller, Rasmus

AU - Hay, Simon I.

AU - Horino, Masako

AU - Hotez, Peter J.

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn

AU - James, Spencer

AU - Javanbakht, Mehdi

AU - Jeemon, Panniyammakal

AU - John, Denny

AU - Jonas, Jost

AU - Kalkonde, Yogeshwar

AU - Karimkhani, Chante

AU - Kasaeian, Amir

AU - Khader, Yousef

AU - Khan, Abdur

AU - Khang, Young Ho

AU - Khera, Sahil

AU - Khoja, Abdullah T.

AU - Khubchandani, Jagdish

AU - Kim, Daniel

AU - Kolte, Dhaval

AU - Kosen, Soewarta

AU - Krohn, Kristopher J.

AU - Kumar, G. Anil

AU - Kwan, Gene

AU - Lal, Dharmesh Kumar

AU - Larsson, Anders

AU - Linn, Shai

AU - Lopez, Alan

AU - Lotufo, Paulo A.

AU - El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Mazidi, Mohsen

AU - Meier, Toni

AU - Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam

AU - Mensah, George

AU - Meretoja, Atte

AU - Mezgebe, Haftay

AU - Miller, Ted

AU - Mirrakhimov, Erkin

AU - Mohammed, Shafiu

AU - Moran, Andrew E.

AU - Musa, Kamarul Imran

AU - Narula, Jagat

AU - Neal, Bruce

AU - Ngalesoni, Frida

AU - Nguyen, Grant

AU - Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

AU - Owolabi, Mayowa

AU - Patton, George

AU - Pedro, João

AU - Qato, Dima

AU - Qorbani, Mostafa

AU - Rahimi, Kazem

AU - Rai, Rajesh Kumar

AU - Rawaf, Salman

AU - Ribeiro, Antônio

AU - Safiri, Saeid

AU - Salomon, Joshua A.

AU - Santos, Itamar

AU - Santric Milicevic, Milena

AU - Sartorius, Benn

AU - Schutte, Aletta

AU - Sepanlou, Sadaf

AU - Shaikh, Masood Ali

AU - Shin, Min Jeong

AU - Shishehbor, Mehdi

AU - Shore, Hirbo

AU - Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

AU - Sobngwi, Eugene

AU - Stranges, Saverio

AU - Swaminathan, Soumya

AU - Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael

AU - Tadele Atnafu, Niguse

AU - Tesfay, Fisaha

AU - Thakur, J. S.

AU - Thrift, Amanda

AU - Topor-Madry, Roman

AU - Truelsen, Thomas

AU - Tyrovolas, Stefanos

AU - Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna

AU - Uthman, Olalekan

AU - Vasankari, Tommi

AU - Vlassov, Vasiliy

AU - Vollset, Stein Emil

AU - Wakayo, Tolassa

AU - Watkins, David

AU - Weintraub, Robert

AU - Werdecker, Andrea

AU - Westerman, Ronny

AU - Wiysonge, Charles Shey

AU - Wolfe, Charles

AU - Workicho, Abdulhalik

AU - Xu, Gelin

AU - Yano, Yuichiro

AU - Yip, Paul

AU - Yonemoto, Naohiro

AU - Younis, Mustafa

AU - Yu, Chuanhua

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Murray, Christopher

PY - 2017/3/8

Y1 - 2017/3/8

N2 - Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.

AB - Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.

KW - Cause of death

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Global health

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85019362730&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85019362730&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052

DO - 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology

SN - 0735-1097

ER -