Neuroimaging plays a pivotal role in the care of patients with infiltrating gliomas, in whom imaging changes are often the first indications of tumor response or progression. Unfortunately, evaluation of glioma response is often not straightforward, even for experienced radiologists. Post-surgical or radiation-related changes may mimic the appearance of disease progression, while medications such as corticosteroids and antiangiogenic agents may mimic tumor response without truly arresting tumor growth or improving patient survival. Immunotherapy response can result in inflammatory changes which manifest as progressively increasing tumor enhancement and edema over months. Many of these pitfalls can be minimized or avoided altogether by the use of modern brain tumor response criteria, while others will require new imaging tools before they can be fully addressed. Advanced MRI methods and novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents are proving important for this purpose, and their role will undoubtedly continue to grow in the future.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging