Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a progressive pulmonary cystic disease resulting from the infiltration of smooth muscle-like lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells into the lung. The migratory/metastasizing properties of the lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell together with the presence of somatic mutations, primarily in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene (TSC2), lead many to consider this a low-grade malignancy. As malignant tumors characteristically accumulate somatic structural variations, which have not been well studied in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we utilized mate pair sequencing to define structural variations within laser capture microdissected enriched lymphangioleiomyomatosis cell populations from five sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis patients. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells were confirmed in each tissue by hematoxylin eosin stain review and by HMB-45 immunohistochemistry in four cases. A mutation panel demonstrated characteristic TSC2 driver mutations in three cases. Genomic profiles demonstrated normal diploid coverage across all chromosomes, with no aneuploidy or detectable gains/losses of whole chromosomal arms typical of neoplastic diseases. However, somatic rearrangements and smaller deletions were validated in the two cases which lacked TSC2 driver mutations. Most significantly, one of these sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis cases contained two different size deletions encompassing the entire TSC1 locus. The detection of a homozygous deletion of TSC1 driving a predicted case of sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis, consistent with the common two-hit TSC2 mutation model, has never been reported for sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. However, while no evidence of the hereditary tuberous sclerosis complex disease was reported for this patient, the potential for mosaicism and sub-clinical phenotype cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that somatic structural rearrangements are present in lymphangioleiomyomatosis disease and provides a novel method of genomic characterization of sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells, aiding in defining cases with no detected mutations by conventional methodologies. These structural rearrangements could represent additional pathogenic mechanisms in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis disease, potentially affecting response to therapy and adding to the complex genetic story of this rare disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine