Genomic biomarkers for breast cancer risk

Michael F. Walsh, Katherine L. Nathanson, Fergus J. Couch, Kenneth Offit

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Clinical risk assessment for cancer predisposition includes a three-generation pedigree and physical examination to identify inherited syndromes. Additionally genetic and genomic biomarkers may identify individuals with a constitutional basis for their disease that may not be evident clinically. Genomic biomarker testing may detect molecular variations in single genes, panels of genes, or entire genomes. The strength of evidence for the association of a genomic biomarker with disease risk may be weak or strong. The factors contributing to clinical validity and utility of genomic biomarkers include functional laboratory analyses and genetic epidemiologic evidence. Genomic biomarkers may be further classified as low, moderate or highly penetrant based on the likelihood of disease. Genomic biomarkers for breast cancer are comprised of rare highly penetrant mutations of genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, moderately penetrant mutations of genes such as CHEK2, as well as more common genomic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with modest effect sizes. When applied in the context of appropriate counseling and interpretation, identification of genomic biomarkers of inherited risk for breast cancer may decrease morbidity and mortality, allow for definitive prevention through assisted reproduction, and serve as a guide to targeted therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Pages1-32
Number of pages32
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Volume882
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019

Keywords

  • BRCA
  • Biomarkers
  • Breast oncology
  • Chemoprevention
  • Genetic counseling
  • Genetic testing
  • Genetics
  • Genomics
  • Prophylactic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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