The structural and metabolic functions of bone tissue arise from its unique properties as a mineralized connective tissue. This chapter begins with a brief review of bone architecture and the interactions of functionally distinct cells. This crosstalk mediates competency for bone to respond to the physiologic signals that include the calcitrophic hormone axis, developmental osteogenic factors, secreted cytokines, and bone-specific transcription factors. Following this, it throws light on recent concepts that have identified the functional relationships between gene expression and nuclear structure in organizing the regulatory information for gene expression. Following this, it evaluates the impact of epigenetic modifications of genes that control cell fate and lineage-specific phenotypes through association of transcriptional regulators with target gene loci on mitotic chromosomes. Furthermore, it explains the chromatin modifications in transcriptionally active and repressed genes that are selectively influenced by Runx2 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex to regulate the stage-specific expression of genes that mediate progression of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. The dynamic integration of developmental signaling pathways and the unique genetic and epigenetic transcriptional regulators of cell growth and differentiation that coordinate skeletogenesis and the control of bone remodeling provide new dimensions for improving diagnosis and treatment of skeletal diseases.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Vitamin D|
|Number of pages||19|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2011|
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