Nuclear transplantation (therapeutic cloning) could theoretically provide a limitless source of cells for regenerative therapy. Although the cloned cells would carry the nuclear genome of the patient, the presence of mitochondria inherited from the recipient oocyte raises questions about the histocompatibility of the resulting cells. In this study, we created bioengineered tissues from cardiac, skeletal muscle, and renal cells cloned from adult bovine fibroblasts. Long-term viability was demonstrated after transplantation of the grafts into the nuclear donor animals. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis confirmed that the cloned tissues expressed tissue-specific mRNA and proteins while expressing a different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype. In addition to creating skeletal muscle and cardiac "patches", nuclear transplantation was used to generate functioning renal units that produced urinelike fluid and demonstrated unidirectional secretion and concentration of urea nitrogen and creatinine. Examination of the explanted renal devices revealed formation of organized glomeruli- and tubule-like structures. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) testing in vivo and Elispot analysis in vitro suggested that there was no rejection response to the cloned renal cells. The ability to generate histocompatible cells using cloning techniques addresses one of the major challenges in transplantation medicine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Molecular Medicine
- Biomedical Engineering