Objective: To evaluate the association of gastric acid suppression medications, including proton pump inhibitors and histamine type 2 blockers, with outcomes in patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a population-based cohort. Patients and Methods: To understand the association between acid suppression and outcomes in patients with CDI, we conducted a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2005. We compared demographic data and outcomes, including severe, severe-complicated, and recurrent CDI and treatment failure, in a cohort of patients with CDI who were treated with acid suppression medications with these outcomes in a cohort with CDI that was not exposed to acid-suppressing agents. Results: Of 385 patients with CDI, 36.4% were undergoing acid suppression (23.4% with proton pump inhibitors, 13.5% with histamine type 2 blockers, and 0.5% with both). On univariate analysis, patients taking acid suppression medications were significantly older (69 vs 56 years; P<.001) and more likely to have severe (34.2% vs 23.6%; P=.03) or severecomplicated (4.4% vs 2.6% CDI; P=.006) infection than patients not undergoing acid suppression. On multivariable analyses, after adjustment for age and comorbid conditions, acid suppression medication use was not associated with severe or severecomplicated CDI. In addition, no association between acid suppression and treatment failure or CDI recurrence was found. Conclusion: In this population-based study, after adjustment for age and comorbid conditions, patients with CDI who underwent acid suppression were not more likely to experience severe or severe-complicated CDI, treatment failure, or recurrent infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas