In health, the gallbladder concentrates bile tenfold for efficient storage during fasting. Intraduodenal protein and fat release cholecystokinin, which stimulates contraction of the gallbladder, relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, and flow of bile to the intestine. More than 90% of bile acids are actively absorbed in the terminal ileum. This enterohepatic circulation cycles 4 to 12 times per day, slowing during fasting and accelerating greatly after meals (Fig. 1).
ASJC Scopus subject areas