Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Joseph H. Skalski, Andrew Harold Limper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Respiratory illness is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The spectrum of pulmonary disease that can affect patients with HIV is wide and includes opportunistic infection with many fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms. This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number01208
Pages (from-to)257-266
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • aspergillosis
  • coccidioidomycosis
  • Cryptococcus
  • cytomegalovirus
  • histoplasmosis
  • opportunistic infection
  • Strongyloides
  • toxoplasmosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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