Fundamentals of Cardiac Mapping

Thomas P. Ladas, Alan Sugrue, John Nan, Vaibhav R. Vaidya, Deepak Padmanabhan, K. L. Venkatachalam, Samuel J Asirvatham

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


To characterize cardiac activity and arrhythmias, electrophysiologists can record the electrical activity of the heart in relation to its anatomy through a process called cardiac mapping (electroanatomic mapping, EAM). A solid understanding of the basic cardiac biopotentials, called electrograms, is imperative to construct and interpret the cardiac EAM correctly. There are several mapping approaches available to the electrophysiologist, each optimized for specific arrhythmia mechanisms. This article provides an overview of the fundamentals of EAM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-448
Number of pages16
JournalCardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019



  • Activation mapping
  • Arrhythmia
  • Electroanatomic mapping
  • Electrogram
  • Filter
  • Mapping systems
  • Signals
  • Substrate mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Ladas, T. P., Sugrue, A., Nan, J., Vaidya, V. R., Padmanabhan, D., Venkatachalam, K. L., & Asirvatham, S. J. (2019). Fundamentals of Cardiac Mapping. Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics, 11(3), 433-448.