Activated microglia release extracellular vesicles (EVs) as modulators of brain homeostasis and innate immunity. However, the molecules critical for regulating EV production from microglia are poorly understood. Here we establish a murine microglial cell model to monitor EV secretion by measuring the fluorescence signal of tdTomato, which is linked to tetraspanin CD63. Stimulation of tdTomato+ cells with ATP induces rapid secretion of EVs and a reduction in cellular tdTomato intensity, reflecting EV secretion. We generate a GFP+ tdTomato+ cell library expressing TurboGFP and barcoded short hairpin RNAs for genome-wide screening using next-generation sequencing. We identify Mcfd2, Sepp1, and Sdc1 as critical regulators of ATP-induced EV secretion from murine microglia. Small interfering RNA (siRNA-based) silencing of each of these genes suppresses lipopolysaccharide- and ATP-induced inflammasome activation, as determined by interleukin-1β release from primary cultured murine microglia. These molecules are critical for microglial EV secretion and are potential therapeutic targets for neuroinflammatory disorders.
- CP: Neuroscience
- extracellular vesicle
- microtubule-associated protein tau
- shRNA library screening
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)