Background Due to increasing rates of functional gallbladder disease (FGBD), we used national data to compare rates, patient characteristics, and outcomes of cholecystectomy for FGBD with the more defined diagnosis of biliary colic. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was reviewed for elective cholecystectomies from 2005–2013. The proportion of cholecystectomies performed for FGBD was assessed over time using a 2-sided Cochran-Armitage test for trend. Cholecystectomy for FGBD was compared with that for biliary colic using univariate analysis, multivariable logistic, and Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results Of 156,322 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 5,161 (3.3%) had FGBD. FGBD as an indication for cholecystectomy remained stable over time (3.4% in 2006 to 3.2% in 2013, P = .29). Compared with biliary colic, patients with FGBD were more likely <50 years old, non-Hispanic white, female, and had a body mass index <25 (all P < .001), while comorbidities were similar (P > .05). While differences in outcomes were seen on univariate analysis, on multivariable analysis, only duration of stay was significantly less for FGBD than biliary colic. Surgery residents were involved in 61.2% of the biliary colic versus 53.9% of FGBD cases (P < .001). Conclusion The rate of FGBD as an indication for cholecystectomy is not increasing overall, but cholecystectomy may be more commonly performed at nonacademic hospitals. While cholecystectomy for FGBD appears safe, the outcomes are comparable to cholecystectomy for biliary colic and thus are not without risk.
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