Revascularization and angiogenesis, as substrates of sustained collateral circulation, play a crucial role in determining the severity and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Developing an adjunct biomarker to help identify and monitor collateral status would aid stroke diagnosis and prognosis. To screen the potential biomarkers, proteomic analysis was performed in this study to identify those distinct plasma protein profiles in AIS due to LVO with different collateral status. Interestingly, we found that levels of Plasma Factor VII Activating Protease (FSAP) significantly increased in those AIS patients with poor collaterals, and were correlated with worse neurological outcome. Furtherly, both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke were used to explore pathological mechanisms of FSAP in endothelial dysfunction. We demonstrated that the FSAP inhibitor, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), enhanced the pro-angiogenic vascular factors, improved the integrity of brain blood barrier, and promoted newly formed cerebral microvessels in the ischemic penumbra, consequently improving neurological function. To elucidate the pathways that might contribute to revascularization during LVO, we applied transcriptomic analysis via unbiased RNA sequencing and showed that Wnt signaling was highly involved in FSAP mediated endothelial dysfunction. Notably, inhibition of Wnt5a largely reversed the protective effects from HMW-HA treatment, implying that FSAP might aggravate endothelial dysfunction and neurological deficits by regulating Wnt5a signaling. Therefore, FSAP may represent a potential biomarker for collateral status after LVO and a promising therapeutic target to be explored in the treatment of stroke.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research