From theory to practical fundamentals of electroencephalographic source imaging in localizing the epileptogenic zone

Jaysingh Singh, John S. Ebersole, Benjamin H. Brinkmann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

With continued advancement in computational technologies, the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) has shifted from pure visual analysis to a noninvasive computational technique called EEG source imaging (ESI), which involves mathematical modeling of dipolar and distributed sources of a given scalp EEG pattern. ESI is a noninvasive phase I test for presurgical localization of the seizure onset zone in focal epilepsy. It is a relatively inexpensive modality, as it leverages scalp EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data already collected typically during presurgical evaluation. With an adequate number of electrodes and combined with patient-specific MRI-based head models, ESI has proven to be a valuable and accurate clinical diagnostic tool for localizing the epileptogenic zone. Despite its advantages, however, ESI is routinely used at only a minority of epilepsy centers. This paper reviews the current evidence and practical fundamentals for using ESI of interictal and ictal epileptic activity during the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant patients. We identify common errors in processing and interpreting ESI studies, describe the differences in approach needed for localizing interictal and ictal EEG discharges through practical examples, and describe best practices for optimizing the diagnostic information available from these studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEpilepsia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • EEG source imaging
  • electrical source imaging
  • epileptogenic zone
  • head model
  • inverse model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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