Mesenchymal tumors of the lower genital tract predominantly occur in women of reproductive age and are mainly represented by aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) and angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF). Whether these tumors are different phenotypic expressions of the same biological entity is still debatable. Genetic rearrangements of HMGA2 have been reported in a few cases of AAM but its frequency and clinicobiological implications have not been studied systematically. We evaluated 90 cases of mesenchymal tumors of the lower genital tract that comprised 42 AAMs, 18 AMFs, 6 cellular angiofibromas, 5 fibroepithelial stromal polyps, 15 genital leiomyomas, 3 superficial angiomyxomas, and 1 spindle cell lipoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to identify rearrangements of HMGA2 and its homologue HMGA1. HMGA2 rearrangements were identified in 14 AAMs (33%) and in 1 vaginal leiomyoma. All other tumors were negative for HMGA2 rearrangements. HMGA1 rearrangement was not found in any of the cases. RT-PCR confirmed transcriptional upregulation of HMGA2 only in tumors with HMGA2 rearrangements. Standard cytogenetic analyses were performed in two AAMs and one AMF. One AAM had a t(1;12)(p32;q15); the other tumors had normal karyotypes. Mapping and sequence analysis of the breakpoint showed fusion to the 3′ untranslated region of HMGA2 to genomic sequences derived from the contig NT 032977.8 on chromosome 1p32. Our findings support the hypothesis that AAM and AMF are distinct biological entities. The diagnostic usefulness of HMGA2 rearrangements to differentiate between AAM and other tumors of the lower genital tract may be limited due to the their low frequency.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research