Frailty across the spectrum of ankle-brachial index

Siddharth Singh, Kent R. Bailey, Amit Noheria, Iftikhar J. Kullo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


We investigated the burden of frailty across the spectrum of ankle-brachial index (ABI < 0.9, 0.9 ≤ ABI < 1.1, 1.1 ≤ ABI < 1.4 and ≥1.4) using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) in respondents aged >50 years. Criteria used to identify frailty status included weight loss, slow walking speed, weakness, exhaustion, and low physical activity. Participants meeting 1 to 2 criteria were classified as prefrail, and those meeting ≥3 criteria were classified as frail. Prevalence of frailty in respondents with ABI < 0.9 (17.5%) and 0.9 ≤ ABI < 1.1 (6.7%) was higher than in participants with normal ABI-1.1 ≤ ABI < 1.4 (4.7%). In multivariable multinomial logistic regression models, ABI < 0.9 predicted frailty (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-4.94) and prefrailty (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.90-2.07). Higher prevalence of frailty was seen in participants with ABI ≥ 1.4 (7.3%), P =.39. Frailty predicted general and cardiovascular mortality in participants with ABI < 0.9. Frailty mediates increased morbidity and mortality seen in peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-236
Number of pages8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2012


  • ankle-brachial index
  • frailty
  • peripheral arterial disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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