Purpose The flipped classroom (FC), in which instructional content is delivered before class with class time devoted to knowledge application, has the potential to engage residents. A Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Residency Program study was conducted to validate an FC perception instrument (FCPI); determine whether participation improved FC perceptions; and determine associations between resident characteristics, change in quality improvement (QI) knowledge, and FC perception scores. Method All 143 internal medicine residents at Mayo Clinic, Rochester participated from 2014 to 2015; some experienced a flipped QI curriculum and others completed the traditional nonflipped course. The FCPI was developed, and factor analysis revealed an intuitive two-factor structure: preclass activity and in-class application. Residents were surveyed before and after the monthlong curriculum to measure changes in perception, and the QI Knowledge Assessment Tool was employed to measure knowledge improvement. Results Postcourse FCPI scores significantly increased for three of the eight items. QI knowledge increased significantly among residents who experienced the FC compared with residents who completed the non-FC curriculum. Those without prior FC exposure demonstrated a significant increase in QI knowledge compared with those with previous FC experience. The FCPI had compelling validity evidence with improved scores after curriculum exposure and associations with greater engagement in online modules. Conclusions Residents who participated in the FC demonstrated improved QI knowledge compared with the control group. Residents valued the in-class application sessions more than the online component. These findings have important implications for graduate medical education as residency training programs increasingly use FC models.
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