The putative seven-transmembrane (TM) domains have been the structural hallmark for the superfamily of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that regulate a variety of cellular functions by mediating a large number of extracellular signals. Five-TM GPCR mutants of chemokine receptor CCR5 and CXCR4, the N-terminal segment of which connected directly to TM3 as a result of a deletion of TM1-2 and the first intracellular and extracellular loops, have been obtained in this study. Laser confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that these five-TM mutant GPCRs were expressed stably on the cell surface after transfection into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The five-TM CCR5 and CXCR4 functioned as normal chemokine receptors in mediating chemokine-stimulated chemotaxis, Ca2+ influx, and activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. Like the wild-type GPCRs, the five-TM mutant receptors also underwent agonist-dependent internalization and desensitization and were subjected to regulation by GPCR kinases and arrestins. Our study indicates that five-TM domains, at least in the case of CCR5 and CXCR4, appear to meet the minimum structural requirements for a functional GPCR and suggests possible existence of functional five-TM GPCRs in nature during evolution.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Jul 6 1999|
- Signal transduction
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