BACKGROUND. Differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from other intramural mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract on fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) is difficult. Recent studies have shown that GISTs are immunophenotypically and genetically distinct. GISTs exhibit consistent immunohistochemical expression of CD-117 (KIT) and often express activating mutations of this protooncogene. The aim of the current study was to employ immunocytochemistry and mutational analysis of the c-kit gene to aid in the diagnosis of GISTs on FNAB. METHODS. Five endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNABs of gastrointestinal spindle cell neoplasms performed at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in Portland, Oregon, from 1998-1999 were reviewed. A panel of immunocytochemical stains was performed on each cellblock including CD-117 (KIT), smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, S-100, and CD34. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was extracted, and amplification of exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-kit was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on CD-117 (KIT) and CD34 positive cases. Direct sequencing of amplicons identified the mutations. RESULTS. Five patients were diagnosed with GISTs based on morphology and immunocytochemical positivity for CD-117 and CD34. PCR analysis of c-kit exon 11 revealed three cases with novel-sized PCR bands in addition to the expected wild-type-sized PCR product. Amplicons from these cases contained an in-frame deletion mutation. One of the two cases with wild-type-;sized exon 11 amplicons was found to be heterozygous for a point mutation producing an amino acid substitution (W557R). No mutations in exon 9, 11, 13, or 17 of c-kit were found in the remaining case. CONCLUSIONS. Ancillary techniques such as immunocytochemistry and c-kit gene mutational analysis may aid in the diagnosis of GISTs on FNABs.
- Fine-needle aspiration
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research