Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass: Association to the GH-IGF axis

Rikke Beck Jensen, Signe Vielwerth, Jan Frystyk, Johannes D Veldhuis, Torben Larsen, Christian Mølgaard, Gorm Greisen, Anders Juul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Poor growth in early life is associated with numerous adverse outcomes later in life. In 123 adolescents 16-18 yr of age, the previous findings of a positive relation between size in early life and later bone mass was confirmed. These associations were mediated by the current height and weight, but it was not confirmed that alterations of the GH-IGF axis cause this. Introduction: Numerous studies have found associations between low birth weight and disease later in life, including decreased bone mass. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal cohort of 16- to 19-year-old adolescents (n = 123) with data on third trimester fetal growth velocity (FGV) was assessed by serial ultrasound measurements, birth weight (BW), and weight at 1 yr. A follow-up study included DXA scan, anthropometric measurements, and measurements of the growth hormone (GH) -IGF-I axis in a representative subpopulation (n = 30). Results: BW and weight at 1 yr were positively associated with whole body BMC (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively), lumbar spine BMC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively), and lumbar spine BMD (p = 0.04). After correction for adolescent height and weight, no association remained significant. There was no relation between IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels in adolescence and size in early life or bone mass. In the subpopulation, GH secretion (median, 2.58 versus 4.05), GH pulse mass (median, 10.7 versus 19.4 mU/liter), and total GH (median, 74.9 versus 108.8 mU/liter/12 h) were decreased in the small for gestational age (SGA) group compared with the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group; this did not reach statistical significance. Likewise, there were no differences in IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 levels between the SGA and AGA groups. A statistically significant positive association between FGV and adolescent IGF-II was found (B = 199.9, p = 0.006). Significant negative associations between GH measurement and BMC, as well as BMD, were found (B = -0.008, p = 0.005 and B = -0.008, p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: This study confirms the previous findings of a positive relation between size in early life and later BMC, an association apparently independent of the distal part of the GH/IGF-I axis. However, this association may be mediated mainly by postnatal growth determining size of the skeletal envelope rather than an effect of fetal programming on bone mass per se.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)439-446
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2008

Fingerprint

Fetal Development
Growth Hormone
Bone and Bones
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Gestational Age
Weights and Measures
Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
Age Groups
Birth Weight
Spine
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
Photon Absorptiometry
Third Pregnancy Trimester
Low Birth Weight Infant
Growth

Keywords

  • BMC
  • BMD
  • Bone mass
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • Small for gestational age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Jensen, R. B., Vielwerth, S., Frystyk, J., Veldhuis, J. D., Larsen, T., Mølgaard, C., ... Juul, A. (2008). Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass: Association to the GH-IGF axis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 23(3), 439-446. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.071034

Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass : Association to the GH-IGF axis. / Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Frystyk, Jan; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Larsen, Torben; Mølgaard, Christian; Greisen, Gorm; Juul, Anders.

In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, 03.2008, p. 439-446.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jensen, RB, Vielwerth, S, Frystyk, J, Veldhuis, JD, Larsen, T, Mølgaard, C, Greisen, G & Juul, A 2008, 'Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass: Association to the GH-IGF axis', Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 439-446. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.071034
Jensen, Rikke Beck ; Vielwerth, Signe ; Frystyk, Jan ; Veldhuis, Johannes D ; Larsen, Torben ; Mølgaard, Christian ; Greisen, Gorm ; Juul, Anders. / Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass : Association to the GH-IGF axis. In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2008 ; Vol. 23, No. 3. pp. 439-446.
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