Family history and prostate cancer risk in a population-based cohort of Iowa men

James R. Cerhan, Alexander S. Parker, Shannon D. Putnam, Brian C.H. Chiu, Charles F. Lynch, Michael B. Cohen, James C. Torner, Kenneth P. Cantor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

99 Scopus citations

Abstract

A family history of prostate cancer has been associated with prostate cancer risk in most prior studies, and more limited data suggest that a family history of breast cancer may also be important; however, there are no data from a population-based cohort study of prostate cancer incidence that adjusts for major confounders. We conducted follow-up through 1995 on 1557 men, ages 4086 years, who were randomly selected (81% response rate) as cancer-free controls for a population-based case-control study conducted in Iowa from 1987-1989. Family history of cancer in parents and siblings was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Incident cancers and deaths were ascertained through linkages to state and national databases; 101 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified. At baseline, 4.6% of the cohort reported a family history of prostate cancer in a brother or father, and this was positively associated with prostate cancer risk after adjustment for age [relative risk (RR) = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-5.7] or after multivariate adjustment for age, alcohol, and dietary factors (RR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.2). Risk was greater if a brother had prostate cancer (RR = 4.5; 95% CI, 2.19.7) than if a father had prostate cancer (RR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0- 5.3). Also at baseline, 9.6% of the cohort had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in a mother or sister, and this was positively associated with prostate cancer risk (age-adjusted RR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0- 3.0; multivariate RR = 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9-3.2). Men with a family history of both prostate and breast/ovarian cancer were also at increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 5.8; 95% CI, 2.4-14). There was no association with a family history of colon cancer. Exclusion of well-differentiated, localized tumors did not alter these findings. These data from an incidence study confirm that a family history of prostate cancer is a strong prostate cancer risk factor after adjustment for dietary and other risk factors, and suggest that selection and recall bias have not had an important influence on most case-control study results. These data also support the idea that a family history of breast cancer may also be a prostate cancer risk factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-60
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

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    Cerhan, J. R., Parker, A. S., Putnam, S. D., Chiu, B. C. H., Lynch, C. F., Cohen, M. B., Torner, J. C., & Cantor, K. P. (1999). Family history and prostate cancer risk in a population-based cohort of Iowa men. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 8(1), 53-60.