Factors influencing the central nervous system distribution of a novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor GSK2126458: Implications for overcoming resistance with combination therapy for melanoma brain metastasess

Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Brynna Wilken-Resman, Daniel J. Ma, Karen E. Parrish, Rajendar K. Mittapalli, Brett L. Carlson, Jann N Sarkaria, William F. Elmquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Scopus citations


Small molecule inhibitors targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (Braf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase) have had success in extending survival for patients with metastatic melanoma. Unfortunately, resistance may occur via cross-activation of alternate signaling pathways. One approach to overcome resistance is to simultaneously target the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Recent reports have shown that GSK2126458 [2,4-difluoro-N-(2-methoxy-5-(4-(pyridazin-4-yl) quinolin-6-yl)pyridin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide], a dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, can overcome acquired resistance to Braf and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors in vitro. These resistance mechanisms may be especially important in melanoma brain metastases because of limited drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence the brain distribution of GSK2126458 and to examine the efficacy of GSK2126458 in a novel patient-derived melanoma xenograft (PDX) model. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that GSK2126458 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), two dominant active efflux transporters in the blood-brain barrier. The steady-state brain distribution of GSK2126458 was 8-fold higher in the P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice compared with the wild type. We also observed that when simultaneously infused to steady state, GSK212658, dabrafenib, and trametinib, a rational combination to overcome mitogenactivated protein kinase inhibitor resistance, all had limited brain distribution. Coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp/Bcrp inhibitor, increased the brain distribution of GSK2126458 by approximately 7-fold in wild-type mice. In the PDX model, GSK2126458 showed efficacy in flank tumors but was ineffective in intracranial melanoma. These results show that P-gp and Bcrp are involved in limiting the brain distribution of GSK2126458 and provide a rationale for the lack of efficacy of GSK2126458 in the orthotopic PDX model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-259
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Molecular Medicine

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