Background: Duodenal injury persists in some coeliac disease patients despite gluten-free diet, and is associated with adverse outcomes. Aim: To determine the prevalence and clinical risk factors for persistent villus atrophy among symptomatic coeliac disease patients. Methods: A nested cross-sectional analysis was performed on coeliac disease patients with self-reported moderate or severe symptoms while following a gluten-free diet, who underwent protocol-mandated duodenal biopsy upon enrolment in the CeliAction clinical trial. Demographic factors, symptom type, medication use, and serology were examined to determine predictors of persistent villus atrophy. Results: Of 1345 symptomatic patients, 511 (38%, 95% CI, 35–41%) were found to have active coeliac disease with persistent villus atrophy, defined as average villus height to crypt depth ratio ≤2.0. On multivariable analysis, older age (OR, 5.1 for ≥70 vs. 18–29 years, 95% CI, 2.5–10.4) was a risk factor while longer duration on gluten-free diet was protective (OR, 0.37, 95% CI, 0.24–0.55 for 4–5.9 vs. 1–1.9 years). Villus atrophy was associated with use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs; OR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1–2.3), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; OR, 1.64, 95% CI, 1.2–2.2), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.2–2.5). Symptoms were not associated with villus atrophy after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions A majority of symptomatic coeliac disease patients did not have active disease on follow-up histology. Symptoms were poorly predictive of persistent mucosal injury. The impact of NSAIDs, PPIs, and SSRIs on mucosal healing in coeliac disease warrants further study.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)