Adenomatoid tumors are benign neoplasms found predominantly in male and female genital tracts. Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been discovered that involve serosal surfaces and nonmesothelial-lined organs such as adrenal glands. Since the discovery of adenomatoid tumors, their histogenetic origin has been debated. Many researchers support a mesothelial cell origin for adenomatoid tumors because these tumors characteristically express a mesothelial phenotype. Tumor derivation from primitive pluripotent mesenchymal cells and coelomic epithelium also has been suggested because of the anatomical distribution of the tumors. Despite their characteristic mesothelial phenotype and histological appearance, adenomatoid tumors have an extensive differential diagnosis that includes vascular neoplasms, malignant mesothelioma, germ cell tumors, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Recognition of these tumors may be especially difficult when examined at frozen section and when adenomatoid tumors are encountered in rare extragenital sites. We describe an adenomatoid tumor of a mediastinal lymph node that was found incidentally during a redo Collis-Nissen gastroplasty. On frozen section examination, this tumor was misinterpreted as metastatic adenocarcinoma. The hematoxylin-eosin histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies confirmed the mesothelial phenotype of this tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a lymph node adenomatoid tumor.
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