Identifying factors secreted by multiple myeloma (MM) cells that may contribute to MM tumor biology and progression is of the utmost importance. In this study, hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) was identified as a protein present in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from human MM cell lines (HMCLs). Investigation of the role of HDGF in MM cell biology revealed lower proliferation of HMCLs following HDGF knockdown and AKT phosphorylation following the addition of exogenous HDGF. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that HDGF enhances the already high glycolytic levels of HMCLs and significantly lowers mitochondrial respiration, indicating that HDGF may play a role in myeloma cell survival and/or act in a paracrine manner on cells in the bone marrow (BM) tumor microenvironment (ME). Indeed, HDGF polarizes macrophages to an M1-like phenotype and phenotypically alters naïve CD141 monocytes to resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells which are functionally suppressive. In summary, HDGF is a novel factor in MM biology and may function to both maintain MM cell viability as well as modify the tumor ME.
ASJC Scopus subject areas