External beam irradiation for retinoblastoma: Patterns of failure and dose-response analysis

Robert L. Foote, Bruce R. Garretson, Paula J. Schomberg, Steven J. Buskirk, Dennis M. Robertson, John D. Earle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Eighteen children with retinoblastoma (25 eyes) were treated with external beam radiation at the Mayo Clinic between January 1977 and January 1987; 15 eyes were in groups I to III and 10 were in groups IV and V (ReeseEllsworth classification). The median number of tumors per eye was 3. Radiation therapy consisted of 4- or 6-MV photons. Doses varied from 39 to 51 Gy in 1.8- to 3.0-Gy fractions. Fourteen eyes were treated through lateral fields by anterior segment-sparing techniques, and 11 eyes were treated by an anterior approach with no attempt at anterior segment sparing. All patients survived (median follow-up, 31.5 months). Cataracts developed in five eyes at a median of 23 months, four in eyes treated with anterior segment-sparing techniques. Of the 15 group I to III eyes, 6 required additional treatment; 4 were salvaged with cryotherapy or photocoagulation and 2 were enucleated. Of the 10 group IV and V eyes, 8 required additional treatment; 4 were salvaged with cryotherapy or photocoagulation, 1 with persistent disease is being followed closely, and 3 were enucleated. Ten (71%) of the 14 eyes treated with anterior segment-sparing techniques required additional treatment (9 of the 10 for tumors anterior to the equator). Four (36%) of the 11 eyes treated with an anterior approach required additional treatment (3 of the 4 for tumors in the posterior pole of group IV or V eyes). Ninety percent of the tumors 10 disc diameters or smaller (1 disc diameter = 1.6 mm) were controlled independently of dose and fractionation used when they were not in the low-dose area of the anterior retina of an eye treated with an anterior segment-sparing technique. We find that use of lateral, anterior segment-sparing techniques has a high risk of anterior retinal tumor development and cataract formation and should be abandoned in favor of techniques that treat the entire retina. A dose of 45 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions appears to be adequate for local control of tumors smaller than 10 disc diameters. Larger tumors may require additional treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)823-830
Number of pages8
JournalInternational journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1989

Keywords

  • Radiation therapy
  • Retinoblastoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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