Exploiting Graphoelements and Convolutional Neural Networks with Long Short Term Memory for Classification of the Human Electroencephalogram

P. Nejedly, V. Kremen, V. Sladky, J. Cimbalnik, P. Klimes, F. Plesinger, I. Viscor, M. Pail, J. Halamek, Benjamin Brinkmann, M. Brazdil, P. Jurak, Gregory Alan Worrell

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Abstract

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a cornerstone of neurophysiological research and clinical neurology. Historically, the classification of EEG as showing normal physiological or abnormal pathological activity has been performed by expert visual review. The potential value of unbiased, automated EEG classification has long been recognized, and in recent years the application of machine learning methods has received significant attention. A variety of solutions using convolutional neural networks (CNN) for EEG classification have emerged with impressive results. However, interpretation of CNN results and their connection with underlying basic electrophysiology has been unclear. This paper proposes a CNN architecture, which enables interpretation of intracranial EEG (iEEG) transients driving classification of brain activity as normal, pathological or artifactual. The goal is accomplished using CNN with long short-term memory (LSTM). We show that the method allows the visualization of iEEG graphoelements with the highest contribution to the final classification result using a classification heatmap and thus enables review of the raw iEEG data and interpret the decision of the model by electrophysiology means.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11383
JournalScientific reports
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

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Nejedly, P., Kremen, V., Sladky, V., Cimbalnik, J., Klimes, P., Plesinger, F., Viscor, I., Pail, M., Halamek, J., Brinkmann, B., Brazdil, M., Jurak, P., & Worrell, G. A. (2019). Exploiting Graphoelements and Convolutional Neural Networks with Long Short Term Memory for Classification of the Human Electroencephalogram. Scientific reports, 9(1), [11383]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47854-6