Explainable Preoperative Automated Machine Learning Prediction Model for Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury

Charat Thongprayoon, Pattharawin Pattharanitima, Andrea G. Kattah, Michael A. Mao, Mira T. Keddis, John J. Dillon, Wisit Kaewput, Supawit Tangpanithandee, Pajaree Krisanapan, Fawad Qureshi, Wisit Cheungpasitporn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: We aimed to develop and validate an automated machine learning (autoML) prediction model for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods: Using 69 preoperative variables, we developed several models to predict post-operative AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Models included autoML and non-autoML types, including decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and artificial neural network (ANN), as well as a logistic regression prediction model. We then compared model performance using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and assessed model calibration using Brier score on the independent testing dataset. Results: The incidence of CSA-AKI was 36%. Stacked ensemble autoML had the highest predictive performance among autoML models, and was chosen for comparison with other non-autoML and multivariable logistic regression models. The autoML had the highest AUROC (0.79), followed by RF (0.78), XGBoost (0.77), multivariable logistic regression (0.77), ANN (0.75), and DT (0.64). The autoML had comparable AUROC with RF and outperformed the other models. The autoML was well-calibrated. The Brier score for autoML, RF, DT, XGBoost, ANN, and multivariable logistic regression was 0.18, 0.18, 0.21, 0.19, 0.19, and 0.18, respectively. We applied SHAP and LIME algorithms to our autoML prediction model to extract an explanation of the variables that drive patient-specific predictions of CSA-AKI. Conclusion: We were able to present a preoperative autoML prediction model for CSA-AKI that provided high predictive performance that was comparable to RF and superior to other ML and multivariable logistic regression models. The novel approaches of the proposed explainable preoperative autoML prediction model for CSA-AKI may guide clinicians in advancing individualized medicine plans for patients under cardiac surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6264
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume11
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • AKI
  • acute kidney injury
  • artificial intelligence
  • cardiac surgery
  • cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury
  • individualized medicine
  • machine learning
  • personalized medicine
  • preoperative

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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