Exercise-induced hypoxemia predicts heart failure hospitalization and death in patients supported with left ventricular assist devices

Daniel M. Koerber, Andrew N. Rosenbaum, Thomas P. Olson, Sudhir Kushwaha, John Stulak, Simon Maltais, Atta Behfar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Following implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices, mechanical off-loading results in improved resting hemodynamics; however, peak exercise capacity generally does not increase substantially. This study evaluated patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who were invasively monitored during exercise to define parameters that underpin exercise capacity and outcomes. A review of all patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who underwent supine bicycle ergometry exercise testing with measurement of pulmonary gas exchange during right heart catheterization for evaluation of dyspnea at one institution between 2007 and 2018 was performed (n = 22). The primary outcome of this investigation was death or heart failure hospitalization. Although resting filling pressures were relatively preserved, resting cardiac index (Fick) was low (2.1 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min). An impaired cardiac output reserve was present in 75% of patients. On univariate modeling, patients with supine exercise–induced hypoxemia (O2 saturation <90%) experienced significantly diminished hospitalization-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio = 11.0, confidence interval = 2.4–57.2, p = 0.003), which persisted despite adjustment for right heart catheterization peak VO2 and peak cardiac output (adjusted hazard ratio = 25, confidence interval = 3.6–322, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that supine exercise testing provides additional prognostic utility in the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Artificial Organs
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Left ventricular assist devices
Heart-Assist Devices
Hospitalization
Heart Failure
Exercise
Cardiac Catheterization
Hazards
Cardiac Output
Exercise equipment
Confidence Intervals
Hemodynamics
Testing
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Ergometry
Gases
Dyspnea
Hypoxia
Pressure
Survival
Population

Keywords

  • cardiac output reserve
  • exercise
  • hypoxemia
  • right heart catheterization
  • Ventricular assist devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Exercise-induced hypoxemia predicts heart failure hospitalization and death in patients supported with left ventricular assist devices",
abstract = "Following implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices, mechanical off-loading results in improved resting hemodynamics; however, peak exercise capacity generally does not increase substantially. This study evaluated patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who were invasively monitored during exercise to define parameters that underpin exercise capacity and outcomes. A review of all patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who underwent supine bicycle ergometry exercise testing with measurement of pulmonary gas exchange during right heart catheterization for evaluation of dyspnea at one institution between 2007 and 2018 was performed (n = 22). The primary outcome of this investigation was death or heart failure hospitalization. Although resting filling pressures were relatively preserved, resting cardiac index (Fick) was low (2.1 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min). An impaired cardiac output reserve was present in 75{\%} of patients. On univariate modeling, patients with supine exercise–induced hypoxemia (O2 saturation <90{\%}) experienced significantly diminished hospitalization-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio = 11.0, confidence interval = 2.4–57.2, p = 0.003), which persisted despite adjustment for right heart catheterization peak VO2 and peak cardiac output (adjusted hazard ratio = 25, confidence interval = 3.6–322, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that supine exercise testing provides additional prognostic utility in the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device population.",
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AU - Koerber, Daniel M.

AU - Rosenbaum, Andrew N.

AU - Olson, Thomas P.

AU - Kushwaha, Sudhir

AU - Stulak, John

AU - Maltais, Simon

AU - Behfar, Atta

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Following implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices, mechanical off-loading results in improved resting hemodynamics; however, peak exercise capacity generally does not increase substantially. This study evaluated patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who were invasively monitored during exercise to define parameters that underpin exercise capacity and outcomes. A review of all patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who underwent supine bicycle ergometry exercise testing with measurement of pulmonary gas exchange during right heart catheterization for evaluation of dyspnea at one institution between 2007 and 2018 was performed (n = 22). The primary outcome of this investigation was death or heart failure hospitalization. Although resting filling pressures were relatively preserved, resting cardiac index (Fick) was low (2.1 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min). An impaired cardiac output reserve was present in 75% of patients. On univariate modeling, patients with supine exercise–induced hypoxemia (O2 saturation <90%) experienced significantly diminished hospitalization-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio = 11.0, confidence interval = 2.4–57.2, p = 0.003), which persisted despite adjustment for right heart catheterization peak VO2 and peak cardiac output (adjusted hazard ratio = 25, confidence interval = 3.6–322, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that supine exercise testing provides additional prognostic utility in the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device population.

AB - Following implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices, mechanical off-loading results in improved resting hemodynamics; however, peak exercise capacity generally does not increase substantially. This study evaluated patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who were invasively monitored during exercise to define parameters that underpin exercise capacity and outcomes. A review of all patients supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices who underwent supine bicycle ergometry exercise testing with measurement of pulmonary gas exchange during right heart catheterization for evaluation of dyspnea at one institution between 2007 and 2018 was performed (n = 22). The primary outcome of this investigation was death or heart failure hospitalization. Although resting filling pressures were relatively preserved, resting cardiac index (Fick) was low (2.1 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min). An impaired cardiac output reserve was present in 75% of patients. On univariate modeling, patients with supine exercise–induced hypoxemia (O2 saturation <90%) experienced significantly diminished hospitalization-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio = 11.0, confidence interval = 2.4–57.2, p = 0.003), which persisted despite adjustment for right heart catheterization peak VO2 and peak cardiac output (adjusted hazard ratio = 25, confidence interval = 3.6–322, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that supine exercise testing provides additional prognostic utility in the continuous-flow left ventricular assist device population.

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KW - Ventricular assist devices

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