Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use

Robert W. Galbreath, William Reger, Thomas Allison, Kim Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to test the safety of exceeding three of the National Spa and Pool Association's hot tub guidelines. The guidelines tested were: (a) a 15 minute immersion limit; (b) a maximum temperature of 40°C; and (c) abstinence from alcohol. Fourteen healthy males participated in four 24 minute trials of 40°C and 41.5°C water immersion after drinking a placebo or a drink containing 0.54 g of alcohol kg-1 of body weight (approximate BAC of 0.08 g dL-1). The primary danger exhibited during testing was systolic blood pressures upon standing to exit the hot tub of 68.1 to 78.6 mm Hg for the 41.5°C/alcohol and 40°C/placebo trials, respectively. Alcohol consumption, at the levels tested, did not appear to increase the dangers associated with hot tub use by the healthy subjects. These results may not apply for higher temperatures, higher alcohol levels, older persons, those with special medical conditions, or women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-15
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Safety Research
Volume30
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Alcohols
alcohol
Immersion
Placebos
Alcohol Abstinence
Guidelines
Blood Pressure
Temperature
Alcohol Drinking
Drinking
Healthy Volunteers
body weight
alcohol consumption
Body Weight
Blood pressure
Safety
Water
water
Testing

Keywords

  • Alcohol and hot tubs
  • Hot tub
  • Hot tub immersion limit
  • Hot tub maximum temperature
  • Hot tub safety standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Law
  • Safety Research
  • Transportation

Cite this

Galbreath, R. W., Reger, W., Allison, T., & Butler, K. (1999). Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use. Journal of Safety Research, 30(1), 7-15.

Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use. / Galbreath, Robert W.; Reger, William; Allison, Thomas; Butler, Kim.

In: Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 30, No. 1, 03.1999, p. 7-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Galbreath, RW, Reger, W, Allison, T & Butler, K 1999, 'Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use', Journal of Safety Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 7-15.
Galbreath RW, Reger W, Allison T, Butler K. Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use. Journal of Safety Research. 1999 Mar;30(1):7-15.
Galbreath, Robert W. ; Reger, William ; Allison, Thomas ; Butler, Kim. / Exceeding Recommended Standards for Safe Hot Tub Use. In: Journal of Safety Research. 1999 ; Vol. 30, No. 1. pp. 7-15.
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