Evolving concepts in NAD+ metabolism

Claudia C.S. Chini, Julianna D. Zeidler, Sonu Kashyap, Gina Warner, Eduardo Nunes Chini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

NAD(H) and NADP(H) have traditionally been viewed as co-factors (or co-enzymes) involved in a myriad of oxidation-reduction reactions including the electron transport in the mitochondria. However, NAD pathway metabolites have many other important functions, including roles in signaling pathways, post-translational modifications, epigenetic changes, and regulation of RNA stability and function via NAD-capping of RNA. Non-oxidative reactions ultimately lead to the net catabolism of these nucleotides, indicating that NAD metabolism is an extremely dynamic process. In fact, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that NAD has a half-life in the order of minutes in some tissues. Several evolving concepts on the metabolism, transport, and roles of these NAD pathway metabolites in disease states such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging have emerged in just the last few years. In this perspective, we discuss key recent discoveries and changing concepts in NAD metabolism and biology that are reshaping the field. In addition, we will pose some open questions in NAD biology, including why NAD metabolism is so fast and dynamic in some tissues, how NAD and its precursors are transported to cells and organelles, and how NAD metabolism is integrated with inflammation and senescence. Resolving these questions will lead to significant advancements in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1076-1087
Number of pages12
JournalCell Metabolism
Volume33
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

Keywords

  • aging
  • disease
  • humans
  • mitochondria
  • NAD pathway metabolites
  • NAD
  • transport
  • vitamin B3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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