Evidence for neurocognitive plasticity in at-risk older adults: The experience corps program

Michelle C. Carlson, Kirk I. Erickson, Arthur F. Kramer, Michelle W. Voss, Natalie Bolea, Michelle Mielke, Sylvia McGill, George W. Rebok, Teresa Seeman, Linda P. Fried

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

156 Scopus citations

Abstract

ObjectiveTo determine whether Experience Corps (EC), a social service program, would improve age-vulnerable executive functions and increase activity in brain regions in a high-risk group through increased cognitive and physical activity.MethodsEight community-dwelling, older female volunteers and nine matched wait-list controls were recruited to serve in the ongoing EC: Baltimore program in three elementary schools. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) preintervention and postintervention to examine whether EC volunteers improved executive function and showed increased activity in the prefrontal cortex relative to controls. fMRI volunteers were trained and placed with other volunteers 15 h/wk for 6 months during the academic year to assist teachers in kindergarten through third grade to promote children's literacy and academic achievement.ResultsParticipants were African American and had low education, low income, and low Mini-Mental State Examination scores (M = 24), indicative of elevated risk for cognitive impairment. Volunteers exhibited intervention-specific increases in brain activity in the left prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex over the 6-month interval relative to matched controls. Neural gains were matched by behavioral improvements in executive inhibitory ability.ConclusionsUsing fMRI, we demonstrated intervention-specific short-term gains in executive function and in the activity of prefrontal cortical regions in older adults at elevated risk for cognitive impairment. These pilot results provide proof of concept for use-dependent brain plasticity in later life, and, that interventions designed to promote health and function through everyday activity may enhance plasticity in key regions that support executive function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1275-1282
Number of pages8
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume64
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009

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Keywords

  • Aging
  • Executive function
  • FMRI
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Social engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

Carlson, M. C., Erickson, K. I., Kramer, A. F., Voss, M. W., Bolea, N., Mielke, M., McGill, S., Rebok, G. W., Seeman, T., & Fried, L. P. (2009). Evidence for neurocognitive plasticity in at-risk older adults: The experience corps program. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64(12), 1275-1282. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glp117