Background: Our objective was to explore the potential benefits of molecular breast imaging (MBI) as a screening technique in women undergoing stress myocardial perfusion studies. Methods: MBI was offered to women receiving Tc-99m sestamibi injection for myocardial perfusion stress testing. During the required waiting period after stress isotope injection, MBI was performed using a dedicated breast imaging gamma camera system. MBI examinations were interpreted by breast radiologists, with review of a recent mammogram in cases with positive MBI. Results: Of 322 women enrolled, 313 completed MBI, comprising 5 with known breast cancer, 2 with known high-risk benign breast lesions, and 306 who were asymptomatic for breast disease with a recent negative mammogram. Analysis was limited to the 306 patients with no known breast disease. MBI was positive in 22 of 306, giving a recall rate of 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.8-10.6]. MBI detected 4 new cancers, resulting in a supplemental diagnostic yield of 13.1/1000 women screened (95% CI 5.1-33.2). The number of cancers diagnosed per abnormal MBI examinations (PPV 1) was 18% (4 of 22) (95% CI 7.3-38.5), and the number diagnosed per MBI-prompted biopsies (PPV 3) was 44% (4 of 9) (95% CI 18.9-73.3). Conclusions: The addition of MBI to clinically indicated stress myocardial perfusion imaging studies in women results in a high diagnostic yield of newly detected breast cancers while generating a low rate of additional unnecessary workup.
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