Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has grown to become the dominant form of heart failure worldwide, in tandem with ageing of the general population and the increasing prevalences of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The clinical syndrome of HFpEF is heterogeneous and must be distinguished from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction as well as other aetiologies that have different treatment strategies. The diagnosis of HFpEF is challenging and ultimately relates to the conceptual definition of heart failure as a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms that are associated with a reduced capacity of the heart to pump blood adequately at normal filling pressures during diastole. Clinical trials to date have been largely unsuccessful in identifying effective treatments for HFpEF but evidence supports the use of diuretics, mineralocorticoid antagonists and lifestyle interventions. Pathophysiological heterogeneity in the presentation of HFpEF is substantial, and ongoing studies are underway to evaluate the optimal methods to classify patients into phenotypically homogeneous subpopulations to facilitate better individualization of treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine