Ethnic differences in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by physical activity levels among older adults in the US

Elizabeth Vásquez, Karine Sahakyan, John A. Batsis, Cassandra Germain, Virend Somers, Benjamin A. Shaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims: This study sought to determine whether the association between varying levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality differ by race/ethnicity in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 2520 women and 2398 men drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–1994) aged ≥ 60 years. We used the metabolic equivalent (MET) of self-reported PA levels to define activity groups (inactive: those who did not report any PA; active: those who reported 3–6 METs for ≥5 times/week or >6 METs, ≥3 times/week; insufficiently active: those meeting neither criteria). Racial/Ethnic differences were modeled using proportional hazard regression (HR) adjusting for age, education, smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. Results: Among those classified as inactive, Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58–0.90) and Mexican Americans (HR: 0.59, 95%CI: 0.45–0.78) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Among those classified as insufficiently active, Mexican Americans (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51–0.77), but not NHB (HR: 0.81, (95% CI: 0.64–1.02) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality when compared to NHWs Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Overall, PA in the elderly (either insufficient or active) is associated with a lower all-cause mortality across all race/ethnic groups as compared to NHW. Further investigation, including studies with larger sample, is needed to address the health consequences of varying degrees of PA in ethnically diverse populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalEthnicity and Health
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Nov 10 2016

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mortality
Exercise
cause
Mortality
regression
Metabolic Equivalent
Nutrition Surveys
Ethnic Groups
health consequences
hypertension
Smoking
chronic illness
nutrition
Hazard
Causes
Physical Activity
smoking
ethnic group
Hypertension
Education

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • mortality
  • physical activity
  • race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Ethnic differences in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by physical activity levels among older adults in the US. / Vásquez, Elizabeth; Sahakyan, Karine; Batsis, John A.; Germain, Cassandra; Somers, Virend; Shaw, Benjamin A.

In: Ethnicity and Health, 10.11.2016, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vásquez, Elizabeth ; Sahakyan, Karine ; Batsis, John A. ; Germain, Cassandra ; Somers, Virend ; Shaw, Benjamin A. / Ethnic differences in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by physical activity levels among older adults in the US. In: Ethnicity and Health. 2016 ; pp. 1-9.
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abstract = "Aims: This study sought to determine whether the association between varying levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality differ by race/ethnicity in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 2520 women and 2398 men drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–1994) aged ≥ 60 years. We used the metabolic equivalent (MET) of self-reported PA levels to define activity groups (inactive: those who did not report any PA; active: those who reported 3–6 METs for ≥5 times/week or >6 METs, ≥3 times/week; insufficiently active: those meeting neither criteria). Racial/Ethnic differences were modeled using proportional hazard regression (HR) adjusting for age, education, smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. Results: Among those classified as inactive, Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) (HR: 0.72, 95{\%} CI: 0.58–0.90) and Mexican Americans (HR: 0.59, 95{\%}CI: 0.45–0.78) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Among those classified as insufficiently active, Mexican Americans (HR: 0.63, 95{\%} CI: 0.51–0.77), but not NHB (HR: 0.81, (95{\%} CI: 0.64–1.02) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality when compared to NHWs Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Overall, PA in the elderly (either insufficient or active) is associated with a lower all-cause mortality across all race/ethnic groups as compared to NHW. Further investigation, including studies with larger sample, is needed to address the health consequences of varying degrees of PA in ethnically diverse populations.",
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