Estrogens play a crucial role in the causation and development of sporadic human breast cancer (BC). Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a defining trait of early human ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and is believed to precipitate breast oncogenesis. We reported earlier that 100% of female ACI (August/Copenhagen/Irish) rats treated with essentially physiological serum levels of 17β-estradiol lead to mammary gland tumors with histopathologic, cellular, molecular, and ploidy changes remarkably similar to those seen in human DCIS and invasive sporadic ductal BC. Aurora-A (Aur-A), a centrosome kinase, and centrosome amplification have been implicated in the origin of aneuploidy via CIN. After 4 mo of estradiol treatment, levels of Aur-A and centrosomal proteins, γ-tubulin and centrin, rose significantly in female ACI rat mammary glands and remained elevated in mammary tumors at 5-6 mo of estrogen treatment. Centrosome amplification was initially detected at 3 mo of treatment in focal dysplasias, before DCIS. At 5-6 mo, 90% of the mammary tumor centrosomes were amplified. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed nonrandom amplified chromosome regions in seven chromosomes with a frequency of 55-82% in 11 primary tumors each from individual rats. Thus, we report that estrogen is causally linked via estrogen receptor α to Aur-A overexpression, centrosome amplification, CIN, and aneuploidy leading to BC in susceptible mammary gland cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Dec 28 2004|
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