Escalating incidence of infective endocarditis in Europe in the 21st century

Khawaja M. Talha, Larry M. Baddour, Martin H. Thornhill, Verda Arshad, Wajeeha Tariq, Imad M. Tleyjeh, Christopher G. Scott, Meredith C. Hyun, Kent R. Bailey, Nandan S. Anavekar, Raj Palraj, M. Rizwan Sohail, Daniel C. Desimone, Mark J. Dayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim To provide a contemporary analysis of incidence trends of infective endocarditis (IE) with its changing epidemiology over the past two decades in Europe. Methods A systematic review was conducted at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. Ovid EBM Reviews, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2020. All studies were independently reviewed by four referees and those that included a population-based incidence of IE in patients, irrespective of age, in Europe were included. Least squares regression was used to estimate pooled temporal trends in IE incidence. Results Of 9138 articles screened, 18 studies were included in the review. Elderly men predominated in all studies. IE incidence increased 4.1% per year (95% CI 1.8% to 6.4%) in the pooled regression analysis of eight studies that included comprehensive and consistent trends data. When trends data were weighted according to population size of individual countries, an increase in yearly incidence of 0.27 cases per 100 000 people was observed. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens identified. The rate of surgical intervention ranged from 10.2% to 60.0%, and the rate of inpatient mortality ranged from 14.3% to 17.5%. In six studies that examined the rate of injection drug use, five of them reported a rate of less than 10%. Conclusion Based on findings from our systematic review, IE incidence in Europe has doubled over the past two decades in Europe. Multiple factors are likely responsible for this striking increase. Trial registeration number CRD42020191196.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere001846
JournalOpen Heart
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 20 2021


  • endocarditis
  • epidemiology
  • systematic reviews as topic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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