Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE

Deborah P M Symmons, Sherine E. Gabriel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

222 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases has long been recognized. Patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher mortality compared with the general population. Over 50% of premature deaths in RA are attributable to CVD. Excess mortality in SLE follows a bimodal pattern, with the early peak predominantly a consequence of active lupus or its complications, and the later peak largely attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with RA or SLE are also at increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease. The management and outcome of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure in patients with RA or SLE differs from that in the general population. Traditional CVD risk factors (TRF) include increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Whereas some TRFs are elevated in patients with RA or SLE, several are not, and others exhibit paradoxical relationships. Risk scores developed for the general population based on TRFs are likely, therefore, to underestimate CVD risk in RA and SLE. Until additional research and disease-specific risk prediction tools are available, current evidence supports aggressive treatment of disease activity, and careful screening for and management of TRFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)399-408
Number of pages10
JournalNature Reviews Rheumatology
Volume7
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2011

Fingerprint

Rheumatic Diseases
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases
Population
Premature Mortality
Mortality
Hypercholesterolemia
Myocardial Ischemia
Atherosclerosis
Heart Failure
Smoking
Myocardial Infarction
Hypertension
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

Cite this

Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE. / Symmons, Deborah P M; Gabriel, Sherine E.

In: Nature Reviews Rheumatology, Vol. 7, No. 7, 07.2011, p. 399-408.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Symmons, Deborah P M ; Gabriel, Sherine E. / Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE. In: Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2011 ; Vol. 7, No. 7. pp. 399-408.
@article{13e2fd1bf90a4df9b5270b4fa1015326,
title = "Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE",
abstract = "The excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases has long been recognized. Patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher mortality compared with the general population. Over 50{\%} of premature deaths in RA are attributable to CVD. Excess mortality in SLE follows a bimodal pattern, with the early peak predominantly a consequence of active lupus or its complications, and the later peak largely attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with RA or SLE are also at increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease. The management and outcome of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure in patients with RA or SLE differs from that in the general population. Traditional CVD risk factors (TRF) include increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Whereas some TRFs are elevated in patients with RA or SLE, several are not, and others exhibit paradoxical relationships. Risk scores developed for the general population based on TRFs are likely, therefore, to underestimate CVD risk in RA and SLE. Until additional research and disease-specific risk prediction tools are available, current evidence supports aggressive treatment of disease activity, and careful screening for and management of TRFs.",
author = "Symmons, {Deborah P M} and Gabriel, {Sherine E.}",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1038/nrrheum.2011.75",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "399--408",
journal = "Nature Reviews Rheumatology",
issn = "1759-4790",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Epidemiology of CVD in rheumatic disease, with a focus on RA and SLE

AU - Symmons, Deborah P M

AU - Gabriel, Sherine E.

PY - 2011/7

Y1 - 2011/7

N2 - The excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases has long been recognized. Patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher mortality compared with the general population. Over 50% of premature deaths in RA are attributable to CVD. Excess mortality in SLE follows a bimodal pattern, with the early peak predominantly a consequence of active lupus or its complications, and the later peak largely attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with RA or SLE are also at increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease. The management and outcome of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure in patients with RA or SLE differs from that in the general population. Traditional CVD risk factors (TRF) include increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Whereas some TRFs are elevated in patients with RA or SLE, several are not, and others exhibit paradoxical relationships. Risk scores developed for the general population based on TRFs are likely, therefore, to underestimate CVD risk in RA and SLE. Until additional research and disease-specific risk prediction tools are available, current evidence supports aggressive treatment of disease activity, and careful screening for and management of TRFs.

AB - The excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases has long been recognized. Patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher mortality compared with the general population. Over 50% of premature deaths in RA are attributable to CVD. Excess mortality in SLE follows a bimodal pattern, with the early peak predominantly a consequence of active lupus or its complications, and the later peak largely attributable to atherosclerosis. Patients with RA or SLE are also at increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease. The management and outcome of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure in patients with RA or SLE differs from that in the general population. Traditional CVD risk factors (TRF) include increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. Whereas some TRFs are elevated in patients with RA or SLE, several are not, and others exhibit paradoxical relationships. Risk scores developed for the general population based on TRFs are likely, therefore, to underestimate CVD risk in RA and SLE. Until additional research and disease-specific risk prediction tools are available, current evidence supports aggressive treatment of disease activity, and careful screening for and management of TRFs.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79960015053&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79960015053&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nrrheum.2011.75

DO - 10.1038/nrrheum.2011.75

M3 - Article

C2 - 21629241

AN - SCOPUS:79960015053

VL - 7

SP - 399

EP - 408

JO - Nature Reviews Rheumatology

JF - Nature Reviews Rheumatology

SN - 1759-4790

IS - 7

ER -