Epidemiology, diagnosis and early patient management of esophagogastric hemorrhage

Sumit Kumar, Sumeet K. Asrani, Patrick S. Kamath

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a potentially life-threatening complication of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Combination therapy with vasoactive drugs and endoscopic variceal ligation is the first-line treatment in the management of AVB after adequate hemodynamic resuscitation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis, early resuscitation, early use of lactulose for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy, targeting of conservative goals for blood transfusion, and application of early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in patients with AVB have further improved the prognosis of AVB. This article discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis, and nonendoscopic management of AVB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-782
Number of pages18
JournalGastroenterology Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Acute variceal bleeding
  • Endoscopic variceal ligation
  • Esophageal varices
  • Gastric varices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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